Research and resources

Key litter facts and statistics
Litter Statistics Fact Sheet (opens in PDF 238KB)
Litter Statistics Fact Sheet (opens in Word 761KB)


Fact Sheet: Litter Counts Made Easy
Litter counts are a great way to measure the effectiveness of litter prevention projects and can provide both qualitative and quantitative data. This fact sheet provides step-by-step instructions on how to conduct and integrate litter counts into projects. 
Fact Sheet: Litter Counts Made Easy (opens in Word 744KB)


Fact Sheet: Safety tips for litter surveys and litter clean ups
This fact sheet provides guidance to assist those undertaking litter surveys and litter clean ups to identify likely hazards and risks, identify actions for hazard mitigation and safety on site and outline emergency procedures.
Fact Sheet: Safety tips for litter surveys and litter clean ups (opens in Word 912KB)


Fact Sheet: Litter Observations Made Easy
Litter observations are a great way to assess the need or effectiveness of public waste and recycling bins. This fact sheet provides step-by-step instructions on how to conduct and integrate litter observations into projects to be an assessment and measurement tool.
Fact Sheet: Litter Observations Made Easy (opens in Word 736KB)


Business Case Template for Litter Prevention Officer
This template provides the key areas to address when writing a business case to employ a Litter Prevention Officer. It includes litter research and cost benefit analysis that can be sourced from an organisations DumpInData database. 
Business Case Template for Litter Prevention Officer (opens in Word 123KB)


City of Greater Dandenong's Better Practice Manual - Dealing with Litter and Illegally Dumped Rubbish
This manual was developed by Rebecca Laurito, Litter Prevention Officer at City of Greater Dandenong, as part of the Victorian EPA's Litter Prevention Officer Program 2011-2013. It is based on her experiences when dealing with litter and illegally dumped rubbish across the municipality and has since been adopted as the standard response to managing litter and illegal dumping in the City of Greater Dandenong.

For more information on the manual please contact the Litter Prevention Officer, City of Greater Dandenong on 8571 5100.
CoGD Better Practice Manual (opens in PDF 2.57MB)


Illegal Dumping Research Report
The NSW EPA Illegal Dumping Research Report explores the motivations of people who dump waste illegally, and the influential factors which may bring about a change in behaviour among these groups of people. This research provides a benchmark for monitoring changes in attitudes, behaviours and experiences relating to illegal dumping. Research was conducted with government stakeholders, trade and industry representatives and community members and the results include recommendations on future strategies and interventions to reduce illegal dumping.


Developing CCTV guidelines
The Department of Justice has developed a helpful resource for any council or organisation considering implementing a CCTV system. It outlines the recommended steps and key considerations that should be followed when implementing and evaluating a CCTV system. 

Guide to Developing CCTV for Public Safety in Victoria

The Victorian Ombudsman also has guidelines for developing Closed Circuit Television Policies for Victorian Public Sector Bodies.
Victorian Ombudsman’s Guidelines for Developing Closed Circuit Television in Public Places


Baycare Action Butts Report
In 2014/15 the Port Phillip EcoCentre received funding to deliver the Baycare Action and Awareness project as a result of a Magistrate’s Court Order (through the Victorian EPA Inspiring Environmental Solutions program). Among other things, the project was to engage community groups and schools to deliver 60 cigarette butt surveys across four municipalities around the top of Port Phillip Bay and to report on the data collected.

The project was an innovative opportunity to investigate the characteristics of locations that are most commonly littered and therefore provide insights to inform local butt litter reduction strategies. 
Baycare Action Butts Report (opens in PDF 4.46MB)


Victorian Local Government Annual Waste Services Report
Every year Sustainability Victoria conducts a local government waste services survey to evaluate local government waste management services. The survey has data on street sweeping, street litter bins, litter traps, and the number of penalties issued.
Victorian Local Government Annual Waste Services Report


National Litter Index (NLI)
The Keep Australia Beautiful National Litter Index is Australia's only national, annual, quantitative measure of what litter occurs where and in what volume. Over 950 sites are visited twice per year to create an annual report on litter in each State and Territory that can be compared against the national average. 
National Litter Index


Branded Litter Study
An extension of the National Litter Index is the Branded Litter Study which identifies which brands occur in the litter stream and in what number. The research was trialled and tested in 2006-2007 and a benchmark year with public results was carried out in 2007-2008. 
Branded Litter Study


Littering Behaviour Studies
The Littering Behaviour Studies (LBS) commenced in 1997, and concluded in 2004, and is a long-term project aimed at scientific evaluation of techniques for maximising environmentally desirable behaviours - such as bin use and recycling. Funded by the Beverage Industry Environment Council (BIEC), and undertaken by Melbourne-based firm Community Change, the LBS research is used to identify the influence of site features, demographic patterns, usage and consumption patterns on actual disposal behaviours - both positive and negative.
Littering Behaviour Studies

The most important outcome of the LBS series has been the development of the world's first disposal behaviour benchmark, the Disposal Behaviour Index (DBI). The DBI is a mathematical means of reflecting both littering behaviour and bin use.
The Disposal Behaviour Index (opens in Word 38KB)


Rubbish Report
The Rubbish Report is a snapshot of the waste removed on Clean Up Australia Day. First produced in 1991, the Rubbish Report has proven to be an invaluable resource in identifying trends in the types and spread of rubbish throughout Australia. It demonstrates the importance of avoiding, reducing, re-using, recycling and reclaiming waste.
Clean Up Australia Day Rubbish Report


Don't be a Tosser Campaign Report
The 'Don't be a Tosser - Bin Your Butts' butt litter campaign was carried out by Sustainability Victoria during 2007. Through the combined efforts of government, industry and smokers, it was one of the most successful butt littering campaigns ever carried out and showed significant behaviour change results. Follow-up research six months after the campaign showed continued low littering rates.
Don't be a Tosser Campaign Report (opens in PDF 1.10KB)
Don't be a Tosser Campaign Report (opens in Word 1.03KB)


The Beach Report
The Cleaner Yarra and Bay Beach Report provides information to the community about forecast beach water quality during the summer peak period. It is supported by weekly monitoring of water quality at 36 beaches in Port Phillip Bay. Where monitoring identifies poor water quality, advice is provided to the community and may be investigated further by EPA Victoria.
The Beach Report


Resources from OSEAN - Our Sea of East Asia Network
Based in South Korea, OSEAN, work to raise awareness and facilitate action on marine debris issues in South Korea and beyond:
Marine litter activity book - OSEAN 2012 (opens in PDF 2.18MB)
Save Black faced Spoonbills - OSEAN 2015 (Opens in PDF 3.62)